Eczema: Types, Causes & Treatments

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The term “eczema” encompasses a wide variety of skin swellings. Dermatitis is another name for eczema. Itchy, flaky skin and rashes on the face, from inside elbows even behind the knees, and on the hands and feet are common symptoms. Skin can become even more inflamed and painful when scratched.

Eczema is not transmitted through bodily fluids like a cold or flu. An eczema patient’s exact etiology is uncertain. It’s most likely a combination of genetics and environment that’s responsible. Eczema may improve or worsen over time, although it is usually a long-term condition. Asthma and hay fever are common side effects for those who suffer from it.

Types of Eczema & Dermatitis

Every eczema species has its own set of triggers, symptoms, and treatments.

1.Atopic eczema

The condition known as atopic dermatitis (AD) is widespread. People of all ages from infants to adults 65 years of age and older live with this illness. Symptoms range from overly dry, irritated skin to painful, inflammatory rashes that create sleepless nights and interfere with regular life.


Atopic dermatitis arises when your skin’s natural barrier against the elements is impaired. Skin is less able to protect you from irritating and allergenic substances because of this.

Several factors may be responsible for atopic dermatitis, including:

  •       Genes
  •       Scaly skin
  •       An issue with the immune system
  •       Environment-based triggers


Topical therapies for atopic eczema include emollients (medical moisturizers), topical steroids, and topical calcineurin inhibitors, to name just a few options. Oral steroids, immunosuppressants, and biologics are all options for treating more severe cases of eczema.

2.Contact dermatitis

It’s possible you have contact dermatitis if you have itchy, scaly skin due to an allergic reaction to something you’ve touched.

It’s basically of two types: An allergic reaction to an irritant, such as latex or metal, is known as allergic contact dermatitis. It is easy to catch contact dermatitis when you come into contact with an irritating material.


Contact dermatitis occurs when you come into contact with an irritating or allergic material. Most of the time, it’s because of

  •       Detergents
  •       Bleach
  •       Jewelry
  •       Latex
  •       Nickel
  •       Paint
  •       Others, like poison ivy, that are harmful to humans
  •       Cosmetics and other skin care goods
  •       Perfumes and soaps
  •       Solvents
  •       Smoke from tobacco


Topical steroids like triamcinolone 0.1 percent or clobetasol 0.05 percent can be used to treat localized allergic contact dermatitis. Oral steroid drugs like prednisone may be necessary if your condition affects more than 20% of your skin. Within 12 to 24 hours, they can significantly reduce swelling and pain.

3.Dyshidrotic Dermatitis

Dyshidrotic eczema (dyshidrosis) is a frequent kind of eczema that affects both adults and children alike.

It is most common in people between the ages of 20 and 40, and is typically accompanied by other forms of eczema or seasonal allergies.


  •       Dyshidrotic eczema may be caused by:
  •       Allergies
  •       Soggy paws and toes
  •       Exposure to substances, such as nickel, cobalt, or chromium salt
  •       Stress
  •       Intake of narcotics


Dyshidrotic dermatitis can be addressed with topical or oral steroids and avoidance of recognized allergens.

4.Hand eczema

Hand eczema is a type of eczema that exclusively affects your hands. If you work as a hairdresser or cleaner, you may be at risk of developing this type of dermatitis because of the chemicals you handle on a regular basis.


Exposure to chemicals is the primary cause of hand eczema. If you work in a job that exposes you to irritants, you’re more prone to develop this condition.

  •       Cleaning
  •       Hairdressing
  •       Healthcare
  •       Dry cleaning vs. regular laundry


There are a variety of over-the-counter in pharmacies as well as prescription-only medicinal moisturizers known as emollients. If you want to keep your skin from drying out, use moisturizers regularly throughout the day. Inflammation is reduced by topical steroids, which are used to treat aggressive eczema.

5. Neurodermatitis

Atopic dermatitis and neurodermatitis are closely related. Scaly patches occur on your skin as a result.


People who already have eczema or psoriasis are more likely to develop neurodermatitis. Doctors are really not sure exactly what causes it, but they do know that stress is a contributing factor.


Dermatologists rarely see improvement in neurodermatitis until it is treated with topical steroids, antihistamines, and other treatments like coal tar and moisturizers.

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6.Nummular eczema

Eczema of this type is characterized by the development of circular, coin-shaped lesions on the skin. In Latin, the word “nummular” is translated as “coin”.

Nummular eczema has a distinctive appearance and can be extremely itchy.


Insect bite reactions and allergic reactions to metals and chemicals can cause nummular eczema. It can also be brought on by dry skin.

It is more likely that you will develop this form of eczema if you already suffer from atopic dermatitis.


Nummular dermatitis can be prevented and treated by using thick emollients on a regular basis and avoiding activities that dry and irritate your skin, such as swimming in salt water.

7.Stasis Dermatitis

This disorder, known as stasis dermatitis, mostly affects the lower legs of those 65 and older. Chronic venous insufficiency and venous hypertension are the primary causes of stasis dermatitis because they impair blood flow and reduce the amount of blood returning to the heart from the legs.


A condition known as “stasis dermatitis” occurs in patients with lower leg blood flow issues. Blood can pool in your legs if the valves that normally direct blood toward your heart fail.

It is possible to develop varicose veins in your legs.


Stasis dermatitis can cause leg swelling, irritation, and itching, thus topical steroids can be used to treat these symptoms. Compression stockings and wraps can also aid with circulation.


Itching, redness, hyperpigmentation, dryness that persists or is interfering with your daily activities should be addressed by a medical professional.

To better manage their condition, people with eczema can work with their dermatologist doctor to figure out what causes or aggravates their skin conditions. The best way to avoid flares is to avoid or reduce the presence of certain triggers and allergens.


1.Is it possible to have multiple types of eczema in one go?

At the same time, it is possible to have multiple types of eczema on your body. Each type of eczema has unique triggers and treatment requirements, which is why a healthcare expert who specializes in the treatment of eczema is so crucial.

2.What is the most severe form of eczema?

More than half of those who suffer from eczema have a condition known as atopic dermatitis. Eczema of this severity and duration is rare. Symptoms might begin as early as infancy. In particular, the insides and backs of the elbows and knees are prone to dry, itchy, and scaly skin.

3.Is eczema contagious through contact?

The secondary infection can be transmitted through close contact with someone who has infected eczema. Redness around the original rash is one of the signs of an inflamed eczema infection.

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